Below are some problems of ANALOGIES with explanations.
1. PANTRY : FOOD ::
(A) museum : replicas
(B) ship : cargo
(C) office : business
(D) armory : weapons
(E) warehouse : storage
The analogy is about a place of storage and what is stored there. A pantry is a place for storing food, just as an armory is a place for storing weapons. So, (D) is the answer.
A museum is a place for keeping artifacts, not replicas (copies). Hence (A) is wrong.
A ship is not a place for keeping cargo. A ship carries cargo. Hence (B) is wrong.
An office is not a place for storing business. Hence (C) is wrong.
A warehouse is a place of storage. It keeps wares, not storage. Hence (E) is wrong.
2. MIRTH : LAUGHTER ::
(A) uncertainty: nod
(B) approval : applause
(C) danger : alarm
(D) labor : sweat
(E) love : respect
The analogy is about an emotion and its expression. Laughter expresses mirth (great joy), just as applause expresses approval. So (B) is the answer.
Nod may express approval, but not uncertainty. Hence (A) is wrong.
Alarm (scare) does not express danger. Alarm may be caused by danger. Hence (C) is wrong.
Sweat may be produced by labor, but sweat does not express labor. Hence (D) is wrong.
Respect does not express love. They are two different feelings. Hence (E) is wrong.
3. ABRADED : FRICTION ::
(A) refined : combustion
(B) attenuated : coagulation
(C) diluted : immersion
(D) strengthened : compression
(E) desiccated : dehydration
The analogy is about cause and effect. Friction causes things to become abraded (worn out), just as dehydration causes things to become desiccated (dry). Hence (E) is the answer.
Combustion does not cause things to get refined (purified). Hence (A) is wrong.
Coagulation (clotting) does not cause things to get attenuated (become thin). Hence (B) is wrong.
Immersion (dipping) does not cause things to get diluted. Hence (C) is wrong.
Compression does not cause things to get strengthened. Hence (E) is wrong.
4. PARSIMONY : MISER ::
(A) temerity : despot
(B) belligerence : traitor
(C) remorse : delinquent
(D) equanimity : guardian
(E) rebelliousness : insurgent
The analogy is about a person and his defining trait. A person of parsimony (miserliness) is called a miser, just as a person of rebelliousness is called an insurgent (rebel). Hence (E) is the answer.
A person of temerity (boldness) is called a daredevil, not a despot (tyrant). Hence (A) is wrong.
A person of belligerence (rebellion) is called a rebel, not a traitor (cheat). Hence (B) is wrong.
A person of remorse (regret) is called a ruer, not a delinquent (misbehaving minor). Hence (C) is wrong.
A person of equanimity (calm) is a person of poise, not a guardian. Hence (D) is wrong.
5. NITPICK : CRITICIZE ::
(A) mock : imitate
(B) complain : argue
(C) interrogate : ask
(D) fret : vex
(E) cavil : object
The analogy is about words basically having the same meaning, but with difference in their degree of intensity. Nitpick is to criticize too much, just as cavil is to object too much. So, (E) is the answer.
To mock is not to imitate too much, but to imitate comically. Hence (A) is not the answer.
To complain is not to argue too much, but to express dissatisfaction. Hence (B) is not the answer.
To ask and to interrogate are same in degree of intensity. Hence (C) is wrong.
To fret is to worry; to vex is to irritate. The two terms have different meanings. Hence (D) is wrong.
6. FATIGUE : REST ::
(A) gravity : weight
(B) friction : heat
(C) dehydration : water
(D) dizziness : vertigo
(E) radiation : light
The words in the given pair are in opposite relationship. Fatigue denotes a want of rest, just as dehydration indicates a want of water. Hence (C) is the answer.
Gravity causes weight. They are not opposites. Hence (A) is wrong.
Friction causes heat. They are not opposites. Hence (B) is not the answer.
Vertigo is a specific type of dizziness. Hence (D) is wrong
Light is a kind of radiation. Hence (E) is wrong.
7. RECYCLE : DISPOSAL ::
(A) recommend : insistence
(B) reciprocate : treatment
(C) rehabilitate : demolition
(D) attach : conquest
(E) offer : sale
The concept of recycling is against the concept of disposal, just as the concept of demolition (destruction) is against the concept of rehabilitation (saving). Hence (C) is the answer.
Insistence is a stronger form of recommendation. Hence (A) is wrong.
Treatment is in expectation of reciprocation. Hence (B) is wrong.
Conquest results in attachment of properties. Hence (D) is wrong.
Sale is what we offer to sell. Hence (E) is not the answer.
8. DICTIONARY : ALPHABETICAL ::
(A) map : contoured
(B) diary : anecdotal
(C) outline : detailed
(D) narrative : prosaic
(E) annals : chronological
Items in a dictionary are arranged in alphabetical order, just as items in the annals (record of historical events) are arranged in chronological order. Hence (E) is the answer. The analogy is about the order of items in a book.
In (A) ‘contoured’ (outlined) does not refer to any order of items in a map. Hence it is wrong.
In (B) ‘anecdotal’ (descriptive of amusing events) does not indicate any order of items in a diary. So, it is wrong.
In (C) 'outlined’ does not denote any order of items in an outline. So it is wrong.
In (D) ’prosaic’ (dull) does not denote any order in a narrative. So, it is wrong.
9. ATTENUATE : THICKNESS ::
(A) separate : substance
(B) ventilate : circulation
(C) vaccinate : immunity
(D) relocate : site
(E) debilitate : strength
In the given pair the first word reduces the second. Attenuate means to reduce the thickness, just as debilitate (weaken) means to reduce the strength. So, (E) is the answer.
To separate is not to reduce substance. So, (A) is wrong
To ventilate is not to reduce circulation. So, (B) is wrong.
To vaccinate is not to reduce immunity. So, (C) is wrong.
To relocate is not to reduce site. So, (D) is wrong.
10. SATIRE : RIDICULE ::
(A) oration : enmity
(B) lullaby : dream
(C) parody : praise
(D) elegy : sorrow
(E) sonnet : remembrance
A satire expresses ridicule, just as an elegy expresses sorrow. Hence, (D) is the answer.
An oration (speech) does not necessarily express enmity. So, (A) is wrong.
A lullaby (song for lulling babies) does not express dream. So, (B) is wrong.
A parody does not express any praise. So, (C) is wrong.
A sonnet need not necessarily express remembrance. So, (E) is wrong.
11. STOIC : PERTURB ::
(A) perplexed : enlighten
(B) nondescript : neglect
(C) tranquil : pacify
(D) avaricious : satisfy
(E) daunting : bewilder
The analogy is one of impossibility. It is impossible to perturb (disturb) someone who is stoic (keeping cool in any adversity), just as it is impossible to satisfy someone who is avaricious (extremely greedy). So, (D) is the answer.
One who is perplexed (confused) needs enlightening. So, (A) is wrong.
One who is nondescript is generally neglected. So, (B) is wrong.
Tranquil means pacified. So, (C) is wrong.
Daunting (discouraging and formidable) may bewilder (confuse) some people. So, (E) is wrong.
12. EXCULPATORY : ABSOLVE ::
(A) motivational : stir
(B) conventional : resist
(C) rhetorical : speak
(D) pedantic : learn
(E) ponderous : choose
The given pair of words consists of synonym variants. ‘Exculpatory’ means absolving, just as ‘motivational’ means stirring. Hence, (A) is the answer.
‘Conventional’ does not mean resisting. So, (B) is wrong.
‘Rhetorical’ does not mean speaking; it is speaking pompously or dramatically. So, (C) is wrong.
‘Pedantic’ is not learning, but showing off learning. So, (D) is wrong.
‘Ponderous’ means heavy, not choosing. So, (E) is wrong.
13. MODERATE : INTENSITY ::
(A) extenuate : seriousness
(B) separate : distance
(C) indulge : chaos
(D) commemorate : memorial
(E) disparage : animosity
To moderate is to reduce intensity, just as to extenuate (lighten) is to reduce seriousness. So, (A) is the answer.
To separate does not mean to reduce distance. So, (B) is wrong
To indulge does not mean to reduce chaos (confusion). So,(C) is wrong.
To commemorate is to memorialize. So, (D) is wrong.
To disparage (look down upon) does not mean to reduce animosity (hatred). So (E) is wrong.