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Wednesday, March 13, 2013

CHAPTER 8: INVALIDATIONS

Let's take up a new word, "PERTAIN." 
If A pertains to B, A is related to B.  
To pertain is to be related, to be pertinent or relevant.

Below are some of the synonms of
RELEVANT:
PERTINENT
GERMANE
APPOSITE
APPROPRIATE
APT
BEFITTING
SUITALE IN A CONTEXT

ANTONYMS:
APPROPRIATE x INAPPROPRIATE
RELEVANT x IRRELEVANT
APT x INAPT
APPOSITE x EXTRANEOUS
SUITABLE x UNSUITABLE

Here is one of the problems of antonyms:
PERTAIN:
A. be apathetic
B. be illegitimate
C. be irrevocable
D. be incongruous
E. be irrelevant.

Pertain is to be pertinent or relevant. So, the answer choice is E.

Now, look at choice C
The word, "irrevocable" comes from the term" REVOKE". 
Revoke means to take back or withdraw something like a rule, law or a statement. 
Here are a few words of similar meaning:
REVOKE:
REPEAL
RECANT
RETRACT
RESCIND
ABROGATE
ABOLISH
ANNUL
VOID
NULLIFY
These words imply the idea of invalidation

Look at the following analogies which have the idea of invalidation.
RESCIND:ORDER
REPEAL: RULE
RETRACT: PROMISE
RECANT: STATEMENT
RENOUNCE:PLEDGE
WITHDRAW: CANDIDACY
ABROGATE: LEGISLATION
ABOLISH:ENACTMENT
ANNUL: MARRIAGE
NULLIFY: CONTRACT
VOID: CHECK
In all these cases, the first term in the pair invalidates or cancels the second.

To REVOKE, as we have seen, is to withdraw
So, something REVOCABLE can be changed. 
On the contrary, something IRREVOCABLE is impossible to be changed. 
Another common type of analogy  is about this kind of impossibility
Let’s take a look at some of such analogies:  
IRREVOCABLE: REPEAL  
Irrevocable cannot be repealed (withdrawn).
INVINCIBLE: SUBDUE  
Invincible (unconquerable) cannot be subdued (overcome).
INCORRIGIBLE: REFORM  
Incorrigible (beyond correction) cannot be reformed.
IMPERVIOUS: DAMAGE
Impervious (undamageable) cannot be damaged.
IMPENETRABLE: PASS  
Impenetrable cannot be passed through.
INDELIBLE: ERASE
Indelible (inerasable) cannot be erased.
FEARLESS: DAUNT
Fearless cannot be daunted (discouraged).
IMPASSIVE: PERTURB
Impassive (undisturbable) cannot be perturbed (agitated).
PROHIBITIVE: PURCHASE
Prohibitive (too high in price) cannot be purchased.
INSOLUBLE: DISSOLVE
Insoluble cannot be dissolved.
UNTENABLE: DEFEND
Untenable (indefensible) cannot be defended.
INELECUTABLE: AVOID
Inelecutable (inevitable) cannot be avoided.
BUOYANT: SINK
Buoyant cannot be sunk.
WARY: GULL
Wary ( careful&suspicious) cannot be gulled (easily cheated).
VIGILANT: AMBUSH
Vigilant (watchful) cannot be ambushed(taken by surprise).
ERRATIC: PREDICT
Erratic (unpredictable) cannot be predicted.
EXEMPLARY: CRITICIZE
Exemplary (perfect) cannot be criticized.
COMMENDABLE: REPROACH
Commendable (praiseworthy) cannot be reproached (blamed).
IRREFUTABLE: DISCONFIRM
Irrefutable (that which can't be disproved) cannot be disconfirmed (disproved).
UNIMPEACHABLE : QUESTION
Unimpeachable cannot be questioned.
ELUSIVE: CAPTURE
Elusive cannot be capture.
INVULNERABLE : INJURE
Invulnerable cannot be injured.
PEERLESS : MATCH
Peerless cannot be matched

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